Saturday, October 22, 2011

Kashiwa City's High Radiation Dirt: Natural Concentration?

57.5 microsieverts/hour radiation on the dirt in Kashiwa City that has maximum 276,000 becquerels/kg of radioactive cesium of Fukushima origin was caused by natural concentration by rainwater flowing into the particular location, according to the city who's having a press conference on the scene.

According to the Ministry of Education and Science, there is a drain that collects rain water at that particular location and the drain broke for some unknown reason, contaminating the location.

Really? 57.5 microsieverts/hour?

Japanese Critic Plans "Hotel Radioactivity" in Fukushima (Seriously)

A Japanese critic and commentator with numerous books and writings to his credit says he's planning to build a hotel in Fukushima Prefecture to benefit from the hormesis effect of low-dose radiation.

I don't know anything about this person, never read his book or writings (if you read Japanese, this is his wiki entry). Since the Fukushima I Nuke Plant accident, he has apparently amassed a huge following among those who believe radiation is safe as exists right now in Japan and heavily criticize anyone who disagree with them, experts or lay people.

For a different point of view, from Mr. Takahiko Soejima's post on his site, dated October 18 and posted on October 19, 2011 (my translation hardly does justice to the original Japanese):

都路の活動本部を、弟子たちと現地の支援者たちだけに責(まか)せておくわけにはゆきません。 私が行って、あのあたりに、  宗教研究家の中矢伸一(なかやしんいち)氏らとも協力して、「健康ランド」とか、「低線量(ていせんりょう。微量の意味)の放射線は人体に良い影響を与える」ことの証明としての 「ホテル 放射能」 を建設しようかと、考え始めています。 また、私たちの 愚かな 「放射能コワイ、コワイ」派の敵どもが、私のこの 「ホテル 放射能」 ( 「ホテル・カリフォルニア」ではありません、「アトミック カフェ」でもありません)の話に飛びついて、ギャーギャー騒ぐでしょう。

I cannot just leave the Miyakoji [about 20 kilometers from Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant] headquarters to my disciples and local supporters. I am thinking about building a "Health Land" or a "Hotel Radioactivity" to prove "low-level radiation exerts beneficial effect on human body", in collaboration with Mr. Shinichi Nakaya, a religious scholar. Again, our stupid enemies who say "Radiation is so so scary" will no doubt make a racket about my "Hotel Radioactivity" (it's not "Hotel California" or "Atomic Cafe").

 本当に、この愚か者たちは、自分の脳に張り付いた 放射能恐怖症で、生来の臆病さ と、ものごとを冷静に考えて判断する能力がないから、救いようのない者たちだと、思います。

Seriously, these idiots are just hopeless with their radiation phobia stuck inside their brains, combined with their inherent cowardice and inability to think calmly and judge things.

私たち学問道場が、3月の原発事故の直後から、これほど頑張って、現地に入って活動を続け、冷徹な客観報道をして、「これぐらいの超微量(ちょうびりょう)の放射線量は 人間の体に害を与えない」と 書き続けた。のに、 それでもまだ、説得されないで、今も、バカな恐怖症言論を撒(ま)き散らしている。

Since the beginning of the nuclear accident in March, our group has done a tremendous job in Fukushima, dispatching the objective news and writing "Such a ultra-minute amount of radiation does not harm human body". However, [these idiots] are still not convinced, and continue to spew their stupid words of radiation phobia.

Kashiwa City's Radioactive Dirt: 276,000 Bq/Kg of Cesium

The highly radioactive dirt in Kashiwa City in Chiba, which measured 57.5 microsieverts/hr 30 centimeters below the surface, was not from radium after all or any other nuclides that are used in industrial or medical use (some suggested cobalt-60, for example). It was from radioactive cesium.

On October 22 Kashiwa City announced the result of the analysis of three dirt samples from the location at different depth (one on the surface, two at 30 centimeter deep). The analysis was done on October 22. The unit is becquerels per kilogram:

Sample A (surface dirt)

Radioactive iodine: ND
Cesium-134: 70,200
Cesium-137: 85,100
Total cesium: 155,300

Sample B1 (30 centimeters below the surface)

Radioactive iodine: ND
Cesium-134: 87,000
Cesium-137: 105,000
Total cesium: 192,000

Sample B2 (30 centimeters below the surface)

Radioactive iodine: ND
Cesium-134: 124,000
Cesium-137: 152,000
Total cesium: 276,000

The address of the location is announced by the city as: 柏市根戸字高野台457番3地先. According to the residents, the place is a strip of open space between the residential area and the industrial area, and is used as playground by many residents, young and old.

On receiving the result of the analysis, the Ministry of Education and Science, who had expressed doubt that this high radiation spot in Kashiwa had anything to do with the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, now says it cannot deny that it is the result of the accident. The ratio of cesium-134 and cesium-137 is consistent with the radio from the accident.

Some speculate that someone in the city cleaned out his house and dumped the resulting radioactive sludge and dirt in this location.

What I find it odd is the mismatch of the radiation on the dirt surface, 57.5 microsieverts/hour, and the density of radioactive cesium, maximum 276,000 becquerels/kilogram. The density is too low to account for the extremely high radiation. Cesium alone may not account for the high radiation, but There's no mention in the city's announcement whether it is going to test for other gamma nuclides not to mention alpha and beta.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Must Read: Asahi Shinbun "Trap of Prometheus" Series Part 1 - Men in Protective Clothing (7, 8) "No One Helped My Parents"

(Installment 1, Installments 2 and 3, Installments 4 and 5, Installment 6, Installments 7 and 8, Installments 9 and 10, Installments 11 and 12)

Asahi Shinbun's series "Trap of Prometheus" - Men in Protective Clothing documents what happened in Namie-machi in Fukushima Prefecture right after the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident.

If you read Japanese, you can read all installments (1-12) in one location, at this blog.

Even if the series is written by a reporter at a major Japanese newspaper, not many Japanese are aware of it, which, after the initial launch, was buried in the 3rd page of the printed version.


防護服の男(7) 早く東京へ来なさい

Men in Protective Clothing (7) Come to Tokyo ASAP


There are people who moved from one place to another on instructions from their daughter in Tokyo via cellphone. Hiroshi (age 67) and Shoko (age 68) Monma, for example, who evacuated to Mizue Sugano's house [in Namie-machi].


The couple's house was in Gongendo District of Namie-machi, less than 10 kilometers from the nuclear plant. In the morning of March 12, the town's emergency radio communication system alerted the residents to evacuate to Tsushima District. The couple went to Mizue's house in Tsushima; Mizue was their acquaintance.


They arrived at the Suganos before noon. Shoko helped Mizue prepare food for the evacuees. After supper, 25 evacuees introduced themselves to each other. There were many that the couple knew.


When Mizue told them about the men in white protective clothing, they stayed on.


But the next morning on March 13, Mizue told them again to flee, and they departed before noon.


They headed north toward Minami Soma City. Convenience stores and shops were all closed. They found a restaurant that was still open, and ate the only available set meal. 3 hotels turned them down, the 4th agreed to put them up for the night.


They hopped on the plane at the Fukushima Airport on March 14 night, and met with their eldest daughter in Tokyo on March 15.


Their eldest daughter Mariko (age 36) kept calling the parents' cellphone after the quake. She got connected only once, right after the March 11 quake; after that, only by emails.


But the last reply to her email was at 8:43AM on March 12.


"I'm praying for your safety."


She did her best to look for the latest information on the nuke plant accident from TV and the Internet, and kept sending it to her parents.


At 9PM on March 12 after Reactor 1 had a hydrogen explosion, Mariko heard the experts on TV saying, "Not a problem". "The explosion just blew out the outer walls, and not the kind that would release radioactive material", she wrote to her parents. That turned out to be totally false.


When her parents evacuated to Minami Soma City on March 13, she wrote to them, "Radioactive fallout even to Onagawa Nuke Plant. It's dangerous there. Come to Tokyo."


And at noon on March 14, "Reactor 3 exploded at 11:30. Come to Tokyo ASAP."


Her father replied, "I don't think we need to go that far". Mariko scolded her father. "Just do as I say!"


People in the position of authority did nothing to help her parents. That feeling of distrust is what Mariko is left with. (Reporting by Motoyuki Maeda)


防護服の男(8) 「ふるさと」歌えない

Men in Protective Clothing (8) Can't Sing a Song About Home


Hiroshi Monma (age 67), who first evacuated to Mizue Sugano's house, used to be a high school teacher. He had also been involved in anti-nuclear movement for 40 years since Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant was built.


It started with 3 residents when they got together in Monma's then-house in Naraha-machi. They continued to appeal the danger of the nuclear plant to the governor of the prefecture and the town's mayor. They had also been meeting with TEPCO once a month for several years, and the monthly meeting was scheduled on March 22.


The group of 404 people sued over Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant and lost. Monma still clearly remembers what the chief justice of the Sendai High Court said.


"Instead of just blindly protesting against the nuclear power plant, we need to calm down and think. For we probably cannot afford to stop the nuclear power plant."


It's been 21 years since the verdict. The illusion that nuclear power plants are safe has been shattered all too easily.


"It shows how optimistic TEPCO's assumption was. Because of that, so many people have suffered so much damage. How is the company going to take responsibility?"


However, he also feels ill at ease with the accusation of Namie-machi against the national government and TEPCO, saying what they did [or didn't do] was "homicide".


There is a plan for Tohoku Electric to build a nuclear power plant in Namie-machi; the plan was first floated 40 years ago. The Namie-machi Town Assembly has been actively inviting the plant.


Last year, one assemblyman told Hiroshi in a neighborhood meeting. "The nuclear power plant will brighten up the future for Namie-machi. I know you are against it, but..."


When he returned to his home temporarily in July, he measured the radiation. Near the house, it was 4 microsieverts/hour.


There is a big persimmon tree in the field. He planted the tree when his eldest daughter Mariko (age 36) was born. There were years when the tree had more than 300 persimmon fruits.


"We can't eat the fruits anymore. They have been contaminated."


About 30 years ago, [his anti-nuke group?] rented a school gym and invited a theatrical company from Tokyo to put on the play about an accident where radioactive materials leaked from a nuclear power plant. It was a story of town's residents running around trying to escape a nuclear accident. It now became the reality.


The husband and wife now lives in a housing development complex in Kita-ku in Tokyo.


The monthly rent is rather high at 135,000 yen [US$1,774], but they decided on that location to be close to their eldest daughter. 1 million yen temporary advance from TEPCO is being used to pay the rent.


Hiroshi always liked singing in a chorus when he lived in Fukushima. In July, he knew about a chorus in Kita-ku, and tried it out with his wife Shoko (age 68).


They sang "Furusato (Home)". "The mountain that I used to chase a rabbit.." Hiroshi and Shoko could not finish the song. (Reporting by Motoyuki Maeda)


The song is in formal, written-style Japanese, and it roughly runs like this in English (which just doesn't do justice to the original Japanese):

The mountain that I used to chase a rabbit
The river that I used to fish
I still dream of my old home
I cannot forget my old home

How are my parents who still live there?
How are my old friends?
When it rains, when the wind blows
I always think about my old home

Someday when I achieve my dream
I shall return to my old home
Where the mountains are green
Where the water is clear

Well, they have destroyed my "home", too. I don't have a clean, radiation-free place to come home to any more. And they are running around like chickens with heads cut off, promising "decontamination" to people and promising domestic tax hikes to foreign politicians, selling nuke plants, and telling people it's OK to eat contaminated food and forcing school children to attend schools in high radiation areas.

#Fukushima I Nuke Plant: Just Released Video of Reactor 3 Upper Floors

or what used to be the upper floors. TEPCO took the video on October 12 when they did the dust sampling. The camera was mounted on the crane boom.

You get to see the mangled steel beams and other incredible mess, against the clear blue sky of October. Surreal in a way.

Don't forget to view Quince effort on Reactor 2, and carbon-based TEPCO workers' effort on Reactor 1.

#Fukushima I Nuke Plant: Video of Inside Reactor 1

Weekend video galore. (Have you seen the video Quince took of Reactor 2?)

This one was taken by carbon-based TEPCO employees as they surveyed Reactor 1 (Isolation Condenser, in particular). The video was taken on October 18, and uploaded to TEPCO's "Photos for Press" page on October 21.

The workers spent most of the time on the 4th floor, surveying the integrity of the pipes for the Isolation Condenser. You do get to see the 3rd and 2nd floors toward the end of the video. One worker calls out the radiation numbers periodically. The highest number I heard was "189" on the 2nd floor.

You can see the light coming in from outside on the 4th floor, giving a warm orange glow to the scene of utter destruction on the 4th floor:

You can download the video at TEPCO, here. Or view it here.

(UPDATE: For this effort, the workers (TEPCO employees) got as much as 9.44 millisieverts external radiation exposure, according to Mainichi Shinbun Japanese.)

Video of Inside Reactor 2, Maybe the Last Video of Quince Who Was Lost in the Building

Asahi Shinbun says Quince was lost on the 3rd floor on the way back from the 5th floor, but from the press conference on October 20 (see my post), I didn't think TEPCO's Matsumoto was very clear as to exactly where. But anyway, either the 3rd floor (up to 40 millisieverts/hr radiation) or the 5th floor (250 millisieverts/hr radiation), the human coworkers would have to brave high radiation to retrieve Quince.

Here's the video that the hard-working Quince took of Reactor 2 building before it lost its way, from TEPCO's "Photos for the Press" page (for your own copy, click here to download):

57.5 Microsieverts/Hr in Kashiwa City, Chiba

After the Setagaya-ku, Tokyo's radiation scare turned out to be radium, what could this be this time in Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture, where the radiation level remains elevated?

From Nikkei Shinbun (11:24PM JST 10/21/2011):


Kashiwa City in Chiba Prefecture announced on October 21 that the very high radiation of 57.5 microsieverts/hour was detected on the land owned by the city in Nedo District. The cause of the high radiation is unknown. Since the measured number is extremely high, "It is hard to believe this is from the Fukushima I Nuclear Plant accident", says the city's general affairs department.


It is a vacant lot, and 57.5 microsieverts/hour radiation was detected 30 centimeter below the surface of the ground. The radiation dropped to 0.3 microsievert/hour at 10 meters from the spot. The city has designated the 3-meter radius from the spot as off-limit, and is planning to remove the soil sometime after October 24.


The city had received information from a citizen on October 18 that there was a high radiation spot, and the city tested on its own.

The city's announcement is here (in Japanese). According to the announcement,

  • The city received a telephone call on October 18 from the neighborhood association that there was a high radiation spot;

  • On October 19, the city measured the radiation at the location which is owned by the city. Radiation exceeding 10 microsieverts/hour was measured at a particular spot;

  • On October 20, with the officials of the neighborhood association present, the city measured the radiation again. The radiation survey meter of the city couldn't not measure over 10 microsieverts/hour;

  • On October 21, the city asked the Chiba Prefectural Environment Foundation to measure the radiation. After digging the soil at the location, maximum 57.5 microsieverts/hour at 30 centimeters below the surface was confirmed.

The yellow marker is where the spot is (from a tweet by a resident):

It's a thin strip of land in the middle of residential/commercial mixed neighborhood.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

#Fukushima I Nuke Plant: Robot Quince Found High Radiation on 5th Floor of Reactor 2, and Was Lost

Reactors 1 through 3 at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant continue to have high radiation levels, too high for humans to work for any length of time effectively. The Japanese robot Quince entered the Reactor 2 building to survey the radiation and temperature on October 20.

Following is my quick report on the October 20 press conference (I watched the video).

Quince entered and measured radiation for the first time on the 3rd, 4th and 5th floor of the reactor building since the accident.

TEPCO's Matsumoto said that Reactor 3 had the highest radiation level (many spots exceeding 100 millisieverts/hour), Reactor 2 second, then Reactor 1.

In Reactor 2, the radiation was the highest on the 5th floor, near the reactor well. It was 250 millisieverts/hour. Matsumoto said the high radiation was probably the result of the gaseous leak from the Containment Vessel, which was seen in the video taken on September 17.

Matsumoto called the attention to the crane on the 5th floor, which was rusted due to exposure to radioactive steam from the reactor.

The main purpose of the survey by Quince this time was to check the 3rd floor, where they may have to enter in case of a trouble of the gas management system that they will install. In the diagram, the green patch on the upper left corner is where the flammable gas measurement system is located. If the gas management system doesn't work, they would need to open the valve of the system.

But for all the work, Quince got lost on the 5th floor. The communication from the robot was cut off all of a sudden, and they don't know where the robot is or what happened to the robot. Matsumoto said they would consult with the experts to figure out how to retrieve the robot in the high radiation environment. Human co-workers of Quince may have to go to the 5th floor.

Radioactive Materials in Rivers, Wells Detected in Fukushima Much Higher Than Pre-Nuke Accident Levels

(Clarification: Plutonium was measured by the Ministry, but it was below the detection limit in the 10 locations measured, as described in the article.)


The Ministry of Education and Science (and the media reporting the news) is spinning it as "good news" that radioactive materials detected in river water and well water in Fukushima Prefecture are "far less than the provisional safety limit".

If you compare the measured level to the provisional safety limit for water which is high as 200 becquerels/liter for radioactive cesium for adults, well yes, it is far less.

If you compare the level to the one before the Fukushima I Nuke Plant accident, it is a different story altogether. The highest strontium-90 level in the Ministry's survey is 5.14 times the highest level measured in 2009, and the highest cesium-137 level is 6,500 times the highest level measured in 2009.

The Ministry's announcement (10/20/2011) is here (in Japanese, PDF).

From Asahi Shinbun (10/20/2011):


The Ministry of Education and Science announced the result of the survey of water contamination in rivers and wells in Fukushima Prefecture, except in the 20-kilometer radius from the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. Nuclides such as cesium and strontium were tested, but according to the Ministry there was no detection of radioactive materials exceeding the standard for drinking water.


The Ministry did the survey twice in June and August. It selected the survey locations from the areas that showed relatively high level of cesium deposition in soil in the Ministry's aerial survey after the accident. 50 river locations and 51 wells were selected. Radioactive cesium and iodine-131 were measured in all 101 locations. Strontium and plutonium were measured in 10 river locations where the air radiation was high. Similarly, at 6 wells, only strontium was measured.


The highest cesium-137 (half life 30 years) for the river water was detected in Mano District in Minami Soma City (37 kilometers north by northwest from the nuke plant), at 2.0 becquerels/kg. The average amount of cesium-137 in river water was 0.58 becquerels/kg. The highest cesium-137 for the well water was detected in Nukazawa in Motomiya City (54 kilometers west of the plant), at 1.1 becquerels/kg. The average for well water was 0.49 becquerels/kg.


According to the Ministry of Education and Science, "Radioactive materials in both river water and well water are far below the provisional safety limit of 200 becquerels/kg". However, according to the Ministry's national survey in 2009, the highest level in river water was found in Akita Prefecture at 0.00037 becquerels/kg (ND in Fukushima). So, 2.0 becquerels/kg of cesium-137 detected this time in Fukushima is 5,400 times as much as the highest level in 2009 in river water. As to 1.1 becquerels/kg of cesium-137 from the well water, it is 6,500 times as much as the highest level detected in tap water in 2009.


The largest amount of strontium-90 (half life 30 years) was detected in a river in Onahama in Iwaki City, at 0.018 becquerels/kg, 5.14 times the level detected in the 2009 survey. Strontium-90 in well water was the same level as before the accident. Plutonium and iodine-131 were below the detection limit.


According to the Ministry's calculation on the internal radiation if one drinks the river water that had the maximum amount of radioactive materials for one year, cesium-137 would result in 0.025 millisievert, and strontium-90 in 0.00049 millisievert.

Hmmm. They tested an alpha emitter (plutonium) and a beta emitter (strontium) in water in locations with high air radiation? What does high air radiation have to do with alpha and beta emitters? And what about other nuclides, like cobalt-60?

The Ministry of Education tested water at these locations twice: first in late June to early July, then in early August. Looking at the result, there are two locations where the amount of radioactive cesium significantly INCREASED during the one month, indicating perhaps the inflow of radioactive materials from the surrounding mountains.

The Ministry's document has very poor resolution, but here's the page that shows charts of cesium-137 detections (page 19 in the document):

The detection limit for the Ministry of Education's survey was meaningfully low. For radioactive cesium and iodine-131, the detection limit was 0.1 becquerel/kg. For plutonium, it was 8 x 10^-6 becquerel/kg (0.000008 becquerel/kg), strontium-89 at 4 x 10^-3 becquerel/kg (0.004 becquerel/kg), and strontium-90 at 6 x 10^-4 becquerel/kg (0.0006 becquerel/kg).

Compare that to the survey by the Ministry of the Environment in May, where the detection limit for radioactive materials in river water was 10 becquerels/kg. The Ministry proudly declared on the announcement that no radioactive cesium or iodine was detected.

The first measurement was at the end of June, so there was no danger of detecting high level of iodine-131 in the water. (How convenient.) I wonder if I can find the data of the measurement that the Ministry did back in March and April in the areas now admitted by the government to have been heavily contaminated, such as Namie-machi and Iitate-mura.

7 Microsieverts/Hr Radiation Measured in Matsudo City, Chiba

According to Mainichi Shinbun (linked and translated below), the group of Japanese Communist Party assemblymen in Matsudo City in Chiba Prefecture released the result of their radiation survey of 144 locations in the city, and found 37 locations with over 1 microsievert/hour radiation. The highest was 7 microsieverts/hour. If you stand on the spot 24 hours a day for one year, you would get 61 millisieverts of external radiation.

Matsudo City, located on the western edge of Chiba Prefecture, are one of the cities and towns that have relatively high overall radiation in Kanto. (The map (version 4) is by Professor Yukio Hayakawa of Gunma University. Matsudo City is circled in red.)

The Communist Party assemblymen in the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly did the similar survey of Tokyo back in May, which helped force the Tokyo government to start monitoring radiation in more details.

From Mainichi Shinbun (10/20/2011):


The group of Japanese Communist Party assemblymen in Matsudo City in Chiba Prefecture announced on October 20 the result of the air radiation survey of 144 locations in the city. The locations included parks, private residences, and nursery schools. They measured up to 25 points in one location, and the highest radiation was recorded at the side of an agricultural greenhouse, at 7 microsieverts/hour. More than 1 microsievert/hour radiation was measured at 37 locations.


1,830 Matsudo City residents also participated in the survey that was carried out from September 7 to October 17. The radiation was measured at 5 centimeters off the ground at each location. The group says it will not reveal the details of the location that measured 7.0 microsieverts/hour radiation for the fear of "baseless rumors". The highest measurement in parks was recorded at the sand box of Nishinoshita Park, at 3.42 microsieverts/hour. The group notified the city, who decontaminated the sand pit. The radiation was reduced to 0.3 microsievert/hour after decontamination.


The city has already carried out emergency decontamination at 10 locations after confirming the radiation measurements done by the city residents. It will conduct a more detailed survey in parks.


Localized, high radiation contamination has been consistently found in places like sand boxes. The group says, "We are surprised at the very high numbers in locations that have been considered relatively safe. We should make it an urgent task to conduct a more detailed survey."

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Germany's "Heute Show" Making Fun of TEPCO, Japanese Government

The clip below is from their show in April, making fun of the NISA, TEPCO and the Japanese government over their handling of the Fukushima I Nuke Plant disaster. A very popular video in Japan now. Some are wondering why none of the comedians in Japan is able to do the same.

(English translation by 007bratsche (Viola) and captioning by Tokyo Brown Tabby)

#Fukushima I Nuke Plant: 450 Tonnes of Groundwater Per Day Seeping into Reactor/Turbine Bldgs

Since the end of June when the contaminated water treatment system started the operation, total 50,000 tonnes of groundwater have seeped into the reactor buildings and turbine buildings at Fukushima I Nuke Plant. Now, the total amount of contaminated water (highly contaminated water plus not-so-highly contaminated, treated water) at the plant has grown from 127,000 tonnes at the end of June to 175,000 tonnes as of October 18, according to Asahi Shinbun.

Does TEPCO have any plan to stop the flow of groundwater into the reactor buildings and turbine buildings, which just adds to the amount of highly contaminated water to be treated and stored? TEPCO is fast running out of storage space, even with cutting down more trees to make room for the storage tanks.

Other than spraying the low-contamination, treated water on the premise, the answer is no. No plan, as TEPCO is running out of money that it is willing to spend on Fukushima I Nuke Plant.

From Asahi Shinbun (10/19/2011):


It has been discovered that the contaminated water has increased by 40% in 4 months inside the reactor buildings and turbine buildings at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, with the inflow of ground water of about 50,000 tonnes. The flow still continues. TEPCO may run out of storage space for the treated, still-contaminated, water. There is also a possibility of the highly contaminated water overflowing from the buildings if a problem at the water treatment facility and a heavy rain coincide.


According to the calculation done by Asahi Shinbun based on the data published by TEPCO, about 450 tonnes of ground water per day have been flowing into the buildings of Reactors 1 through 4 since the end of June when the contaminated water treatment facility started the operation. It is considered that there are damages in the walls of the buildings.


The amount of groundwater into the buildings fluctuates with the rainfall. At the end of September when it rained heavily because of a typhoon, the amount of ground water doubled, and about 7,700 tonnes of water seeped into the buildings in that week.


The groundwater would mix with the contaminated water in the basement of the buildings, and this highly contaminated water is being sent to the water treatment facility. After the density of radioactive materials in the water is lowered and salt removed, the treated water is being used for cooling the reactors.


When the circulatory water injection and cooling system started in late June, there were 127,000 tonnes of contaminated water (highly contaminated water plus the treated water with low contamination). However, as the result of the groundwater inflow, there are now 175,000 tonnes of contaminated water, a 40% increase, as of October 18. None of the water could be released outside the plant.


Concentrated, highly saline waste water after the desalination process is stored in the special tanks. As more water is processed, more tanks are needed. TEPCO is installing 20,000 tonnes storage tanks every month. To secure the space for the tanks the company has been cutting down the trees in the plant compound. There is a system to evaporate water to reduce the amount of waste water, but it is not currently used.


The water level in the turbine buildings where the highly contaminated water after the reactor cooling accumulates is 1 meter below the level at which there is a danger of overflowing. It is not the level that would cause immediate overflow after a heavy rain. However, if the heavy rain is coupled with a trouble at the water treatment system that hampers the water circulation, the water level could rise very rapidly.


The treatment capacity of the water treatment facility is 1,400 tonnes per day. TEPCO emphasizes that the facility is running smoothly and the circulatory water injection system is stable. However, if the current situation continues where groundwater keeps coming into the buildings that needs to be treated, the water treatment facility will be taxed with excess load, which may cause a problem.


It is difficult to stop the inflow of groundwater completely, and TEPCO is not planning any countermeasure construction. Regarding the continued inflow of groundwater into the buildings, TEPCO's Junichi Matsumoto says, "We have to come up with a more compact water treatment system in which we can circulate water without using the basements of the buildings. Otherwise we would be stuck in a situation where we have to treat the groundwater coming into the basements." However, there is no prospect of fundamentally solving the problem.

And there will be no such prospect, as TEPCO is now proven to be very good at looking the other way. Over 10 sieverts/hour ultra-hot spot? Not a problem, we will just cordon off the area. What is causing 10 sieverts/hour radiation? Why it's not our problem. How much over 10 sieverts/hour? We don't know because we don't measure such things. High hydrogen concentration in the pipe? Not a problem, we will just blow nitrogen gas. What is causing the high hydrogen concentration? It's not our problem. A worker died after 1 week of work at the plant. Why? It's not our problem, it's the subcontractor's problem...

TEPCO's Subsidiary Selected to Burn Disaster Debris from Iwate on Tokyo Bay

I forgot to write about it in the English blog, but the readers of my Japanese blog knew. Now everyone will know that the contractor who will burn the burnable part of the disaster (radioactive) debris from Miyako City in Iwate Prefecture is a subsidiary of TEPCO, called "Tokyo Rinkai (Waterfront) Recycle Power Company" located on the very landfill on Tokyo Bay that the radioactive debris and ashes will be buried.

Here's the brief background:

The Tokyo Metropolitan government signed an agreement with Iwate Prefecture on September 30 to accept disaster debris from Iwate Prefecture, starting with that of Miyako City, without much consultation at all with the Metropolitan Assembly or the residents of Tokyo. Then, it did the public solicitation to line up the waste disposal companies who would take the debris, smash them into small pieces and bring them to the landfill in Tokyo Bay. One of the stipulations (link is in Japanese, PDF) by the Tokyo government was that the applicants must select a contractor who could burn the burnable part of the disaster debris with the daily capacity of 100 tonnes and above.

Well, my quick search on the Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Environment showed that there was only ONE company that could burn 100 tonnes of debris or more per day, and that was TEPCO's subsidiary, Tokyo Rinkai Recycle Power Company.

Sure enough, on October 19, the Tokyo Metropolitan government announced the 4 companies it selected to handle the disaster radioactive debris from Iwate, and these 4 companies all selected the TEPCO subsidiary to handle the burnable portion of the debris. Of course they did because that was the only choice.

From the October 19 announcement:


As to the facility to burn the burnable debris from this pilot project, the companies are required to select a facility which satisfies the condition specified in the application form. All the companies have selected Tokyo Rinkai Recycle Power Company (Aomi, Koto-ku).

That stipulation was probably put in just to make sure the TEPCO subsidiary would have a cut in the juicy job.

The company is a joint venture of 5 large corporations:

It receives subsidies from the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and sells electricity generated from the waste processing to TEPCO. Now it will make profit burning radioactive debris for the recovery of Iwate Prefecture.

Comment Section of This Blog

In case some of the readers haven't figured out, there are certain things you need to know.

First, this is my personal blog, not a public, free-topic forum. I haven't actively censored the comments (except for whatever Google decides to put in the SPAM folder, which is a real pain), but I can, and I will if the current situation continues.

What is the current situation as I see it?

  • Totally off-topic (i.e. unrelated to the post that the comment section is attached to) comments on religions, personal attacks or ridicules on posters who some readers don't agree with;

  • And these comments just keep going on and on.

I have kept the comment section of the blog open, so that people can share information, opinions and ideas RELATING TO the on-going nuclear crisis in Japan and the posts that I write. I welcome criticism to the posts, as well as criticism on other posters that you may disagree with, in a civil way.

However, I do not tolerate persistent personal attacks, and comments on religions that have very little to do with the posts or this blog which has been covering the events in Japan since March 11.

If the current situation continues, I will start actively removing the posts that I believe may be discouraging other people from posting comments and information by totally crowding out others.

2nd-Pick "Sayama-cha" Tea in Saitama: 84% Contained Radioactive Cesium, 9% Exceeded Provisional Safety Limit

The Saitama prefectural government decided to test all teas from all tea plantations in the prefecture (it is one of the major tea growing regions in Japan), after the Ministry of Health and Labor did the random testing of Saitama teas that were sold in the market in September and found radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional safety limit of 500 becquerels/kg.

When the prefectural government tested the tea between May and July, they picked only 38 samples to test, and declared safe after they all tested "below the provisional safety limit".

On October 19, Saitama announced the result of its testing of the 2nd-pick teas (made from tea leaves picked after the new leaves were picked) of the prefecture's 1,081 brands of "Sayama-cha" tea at 216 tea growers and blenders.

Of 1,081 brands,

  • 97 (or 9% of total) were found with radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional safety limit, as much as 2,063 becquerels/kg;

  • 912 (or 84% of total) were found with radioactive cesium below the provisional safety limit, but as much as 490 becquerels/kg. (I'm counting the number of the brands again to make sure, but I don't think I'm far off.)

Again, the provisional safety limit is 500 becquerels/kg. Saitama Prefecture says it will affix the seal of testing on the packages of those teas that tested below the provisional safety limit, including the one with 490 becquerels/kg of cesium, so that the consumers will feel safe. All this label says is that the tea has been tested for radiation. The sunny mark at the top is supposed to indicate everything is OK.

They have already sold most of the teas that exceeded the provisional safety limit for cesium.

Below is the list of teas that exceeded the provisional safety limit, from the Saitama Prefecture website:

For the list of teas that tested below the provisional safety limit but still contained significant amount of radioactive cesium, go to the Saitama website.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Decon Bubble in Fukushima: Contractors Charging US$13,000 Per House

Yet another fine example of how a government is so good at misallocating the resource. By pledging to pour hundreds of billions of yen (probably in trillions) into "decontaminating" Fukushima, the Japanese government has already spawned a brand-new industry of residential decontamination. Who are the industry participants? Cleaners, painters, just about anyone who has a high-pressure washer.

Some are apparently charging 1 million yen (US$13,000) to hose down your house. As you can see in the video in the previous post, their idea of "decontamination" looks little more than year-end cleanup. Power washing seems to somehow turn cleanup into "decontamination".

From Yomiuri Shinbun (10/19/2011):


As decontamination work gets underway in Fukushima Prefecture to remove radioactive materials from the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, so do troubles with the decontamination contractors. Some are asking 1 million yen [US$13,000] to decontaminate a house.


Disputes over the cost may increase in the future, and there are some who point out that there should be a guideline specifying what constitutes the standard decontamination work and the cost associated with it.


Regarding decontamination, some municipalities like Fukushima City have the city-wide decontamination plan and focus on particular areas to decontaminate. On the other hand, there are cases where the residents hire contractors for decontamination on their own. There are also active sales promotion by the contractors.


Disputes mostly rise from the latter cases. The Fukushima prefectural department in charge of decontamination has received a complaint from a resident who was presented with a bill for 1 million yen by the contractor who did the decontamination work for his residence. The department says it has received similar complaints.


Fukushima City has received inquiries from the residents about the cost of decontamination. One resident who hired the contractor to decontaminate for 200,000 yen [US$2,600] asked the city whether or not this cost would be paid by either the national government or TEPCO.


There were no contractors specialized in decontaminating residences, until now. Many cleaning companies and painters are entering the field. One building management company in Minami Soma City says, "If we calculate the same way as the cleaning of a personal residence, 200,000 to 300,000 yen per residence would be appropriate."

Hmmm. Decontamination is not the same as cleaning, really. But from what I've heard directly from people who have witnessed the so-called "decontamination" in Fukushima and what I've seen on video, they are one and the same.

Blasting the roof and wall with power washer after more than 7 months may not even be enough to dislodge radioactive cesium, as Professor Yamauchi has analyzed. Even if it does, it simply moves cesium to somewhere else, like the neighbor's yard or onto the public road. Then, particularly in the case of Fukushima, the contaminated mountains and forests surrounding the cities and towns will supply radioactive cesium and other nuclides over time with rain and wind.

But no matter. Money is there to be made, as near-endless supply of money flowing from the national government to "decontaminate" Fukushima and make people stay.

If blasting with power washer does decontaminate, I am pretty sure Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians have done that long time ago.

Prime Minister Noda, whom you can see in the video in the previous post, won the leadership election thanks to his oratorical skills and NHK misreporting on the votes available for Banri Kaieda, looks absolutely clueless. Just as his predecessor, the whole thing looks way over his head.

This Is How "Decontamination" Is Done, and To Be Done in Fukushima

As Prime Minister Noda looked on, workers contracted by Fukushima City "decontaminated" a relatively new-looking residence in Onami District in Fukushima City on October 18. It is to be served as "model decontamination" for the rest of the district, as well as for the city.

It amounts to nothing more than power washing to "move" radioactive materials from one place to another.

Onami District of Fukushima City, along with another district (Watari District), has high air radiation and soil contamination. In the "model decontamination" work done by the city in August, the radiation hardly went down, while in several locations it went up. Quite a "model decontamination". It is probably a model distribution of government money among well-connected contractors.

This is a footage of the TBS news:

#Radioactive Tea from TOKYO: 3 Exceeding Provisional Safety Limit for Cesium

550 to 690 becquerels/kg of radioactive cesium detected in the commercial teas grown in 3 tea plantations in Tokyo. The Tokyo Metropolitan government tested 30 teas in early October, and radioactive cesium was detected from 29 of them.

Back in May, three elementary school in Itabashi-ku, Tokyo had the pupils pick radioactive tea leaves (2,700 becquerels/kg of radioactive cesium) as part of their social studies activities. But that wasn't, apparently, a big deal since it was not a commercial product.

Mainichi Shinbun (10/18/2011):


Tokyo Municipal government announced on October 18 that 550 to 690 becquerels/kg of radioactive cesium, exceeding the national provisional safety limit of 500 becquerels/kg, was detected from the "Tokyo Sayama-cha" tea from three tea plantations in Tokyo. It is the first time radioactive cesium was detected from commercial teas grown in Tokyo.


According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Industry and Labor, the teas were picked in May at three tea plantations in Musashi Murayama City, Mizuho-machi, and Akiruno City. Part of the teas was consumed by the growers themselves but the rest haven't been sold yet. The tea plantations store 500 kg, which the Tokyo government has requested them to discard.

Discard how? Dump them in a garbage can as regular garbage, I suppose, since the radiation level is "low".

It was not until October 6 that the Tokyo Metropolitan government conducted a more extensive testing of the green teas grown, picked, and processed in Tokyo in May, after it learned of the teas grown in neighboring Saitama and Chiba Prefectures found with radioactive cesium exceeding the provisional safety limit.

If you look at the Tokyo government announcement, radioactive cesium was detected in significant amount in ALL but one teas tested. However, except for the three that exceeded the provisional safety limit, they can be sold without any restriction, and probably have been already sold. (The image of the announcement below is from, with highlight on teas in which radioactive cesium was detected.)

Monday, October 17, 2011

The Economist: Global Debt Clock - Some Countries Look More Dead Than Others

The world is toast and Japan is a basket case. And Japan's new Finance Minister pledged (though no one demanded it) 5% hike in consumption tax at G20 so that the new Japanese administration continue more government wasteful spending like inviting 10,000 foreigners and IAEA to Japan and building a cancer hospital for Dr. Yamashita.

The UK paper The Economist has an interactive "global debt clock". Here's a screen shot with the public (government) debt burden per capita for Japan, the US, and Greece (basket case in EU). The numbers don't include the future government obligations like pensions and medical care programs.

I don't know how The Economist is counting the US public debt; the last I checked (conveniently on this blog, in the left column), it was well over US$14 trillion, approaching 15 trillion. But taking the numbers from The Economist, Japan has more public (government) debt than the US with the population about 40% that of the US.

Per capita public debt, according to The Economist:

  • Japan: $86,262

  • US: $33,555

  • Greece: $34,304

Per capita public debt of the US is approaching that of the EU basket case. When George W. Bush took office, it was $10,836. When Barack Obama took office, it was $19,945. In 2012, it is expected to be $37,952, according to The Economist.

#Radioactive Used Car: 20.38 Microsieverts/Hr Car Destined for Kenya Stopped

at a car exporter in Kawasaki City, in Kanagawa Prefecture.

At least, used cars for export get tested for radiation. And those cars rejected for export for high radiation? Where will they go? (Anecdotal evidence suggests they are simply sold inside Japan.)

From Sankei Shinbun (10/17/2011):


Kawasaki City announced on October 17 that a used car brought in to a used car exporter in Higashi Ogijima in Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki City tested 20.38 microsieverts/hr radiation. According to the city, "That level of radiation does not have immediate effect on human body."


According to the city, the car was auctioned off in Chiba, and brought to the exporter in Kawasaki City for export. The license plate number was previously that of Iwaki City in Fukushima Prefecture. The car was destined for Kenya, but instead the dealer who had won the car in the auction took it back.


The city requires the dealers to report if any used car brought to the port of Kawasaki [for export] exceeds 5 microsieverts/hour radiation.

Let's see. 20 microsieverts/hour, and if you are on the road 2 hours a day for one year you would get 14.6 millisieverts external radiation from the car alone. Since it is less than 20 millisieverts, that's nothing in the current Japan.

The residents who lived within the 20-kilometer radius from Fukushima I Nuke Plant have been returning to their homes to retrieve cars and other items from their homes. Movement of cars in and out of Fukushima Prefecture is not restricted, except for the 20-kilometer radius residents whose cars need to be checked for radiation at J-Village. Many cars out of Fukushima, even those within the 20-kilometer radius area, have been transported by land to various locations in Japan. Only when the cars are sold to the exporters, then they are tested for radiation.

TEPCO Submitted the Uncensored Severe Accident Manual, But Didn't (and Couldn't) Use It Anyway

The Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) is currently reviewing the document to determine which part can be safely disclosed to the public, but it doesn't seem to matter anyway.

In yesterday's (October 17, 2011) joint press conference of all relevant government agencies and TEPCO, TEPCO submitted the progress report on its "roadmap" (link is TEPCO's English) to stabilize the situation at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. In the press conference, there was a mention of the "Severe Accident Manual" that TEPCO had been criticized for blackening it out almost completely for "confidentiality" concern.

Independent journalist Ryuichi Kino asked TEPCO's Matsumoto about the Manual, and it turned out that TEPCO didn't (and couldn't) use the Manual anyway. Kino tweets:


So I thought TEPCO must have used this Severe Accident Manual on March 11 earthquake. [TEPCO's] Matsumoto's answer was "No". The reactors were automatically scrammed after the earthquake, which was the normal operating procedure. So the company proceeded with the normal operating manual. So I asked when TEPCO started using the Severe Accident Manual. The answer was that it never did.


The events at the plant after the tsunami were beyond what was expected, and procedures like opening and closing the valves in the complete darkness after all-station blackout are not in the Severe Accident Manual. So, just like this article (Kyodo News) says, the Manual was not usable from the beginning.

The link Kino gives goes to Kyodo News Japanese article (10/2/2011). Most newspapers used the part about "no hydrogen explosion in the Reactor 2 suppression chamber", but not about the Severe Accident Manual. From 10/2/2011 Kyodo News:


It was revealed on October 2 that TEPCO's accident investigation committee concluded that the Severe Accident Manual had been useless. The Manual had assumed that the emergency power supplies like diesel generators would be operational; in reality they all failed, and couldn't be used to deal with the accident.


The committee also determined that there was no hydrogen explosion near the Suppression Chamber of Reactor 2, a different conclusion from what it had been assumed.

TEPCO's (for that matter, all nuclear power plant operators') severe accident procedure relied on having electricity available somehow.

So what DID TEPCO use to deal with the accident?

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Radioactive Debris: Ministry of the Environment to Municipalities - Don't Tell Anyone, Don't Say No

As reported here a number of times, Japan's Ministry of the Environment under Goshi Hosono (who is also in charge of the Fuku I nuclear accident) is more than ever eager to spread radiation throughout Japan by forcing the municipalities (except one - Tokyo - who will be happily burning the debris from Iwate after a bogus test of mixing radioactive debris with regular garbage to reduce the density of radioactive materials in the ashes) to accept disaster debris from Tohoku.

Someone in Japan uploaded the notice from the Ministry to the people in charge of waste disposal in the municipalities, dated October 7, 2011. It is a questionnaire that the Ministry wants the municipalities to fill and send back to the Ministry via email, asking about the current status in the municipalities on their effort to accept disaster debris. The Ministry wants to know how much debris they can take in, what types of debris, what type of disposal available. The similar survey was done several months ago, but since then the local oppositions have grown. So the Ministry wants to persuade the wavering municipalities.

The notice is not what the Ministry would put up on their website as "press release" because it is not a press release. Rather, it is a document only seen by local officials.

The notice is an outrage for anyone who oppose moving the radioactive debris to their cities and towns, particularly those in the western Japan where the radioactive fallout from Fukushima I Nuke Plant has been close to zero. (Internal radiation exposure is another matter, which is happening in the western Japan also.)




When we announce the result of the survey, the names of the individual municipalities will not be disclosed.

Unlike the earlier survey where all the names of the municipalities were disclosed and which led to the citizens' oppositions in those municipalities, the Ministry is assuring them their names won't be disclosed this time.

Second, in the multiple choices on the current effort level at the municipalities, there is no choice to say "No" to the debris. There are three choices, and they are:

A: Already accepting the debris

B: Effort already ongoing such as sending the personnel to the disaster area and setting up the committee to discuss the acceptance


C: Hasn't started sending the personnel to the disaster area or setting up the committee, but ongoing discussion toward accepting the debris

There should have been D: No plan to accept any debris from the disaster area, period.

To top it off, when it actually comes to bringing the disaster debris to those municipalities who will have secretly said yes, the residents may or may not be consulted if the case of Aichi Prefecture is any indication:

Chunichi Shinbun (10/15/2011; don't expect the link to remain long for this paper. If it is gone, go here for the full copy of the article) reports a comment from the Ministry of the Environment:


"When the actual acceptance of the debris happens, we may consider having the municipalities explain to the residents."

Doing the rudimentary reading-between-the-lines exercise, I think the Ministry is saying it does not require that the municipalities explain the debris acceptance to the residents, and it certainly does not require that the explanation be done beforehand.

Some on the net call the Ministry as "The Ministry of the Environmental Destruction". That's about right.

Here's a page from the scanned copy of the Ministry's notice, detailing what information the Ministry wants from the municipalities including the above multiple choice question:

#Fukushima I Nuke Plant: Mountains of Tyvek Suits at J-Village

Discarded Tyvek suits, 480,000 of them, which TEPCO would have to treat as low-level radioactive waste and dispose accordingly (unlike regular garbage or sewer sludge ash in Tokyo, which may be more contaminated than the Tyvek suits in Fuku I):

New Tyvek suits being distributed. Inventory at J-village, about 500,000:

A Tyvek suit costs about 1,000 yen (US$13) average in Japan, so it is costing TEPCO 1 billion yen ($13 million). As is usual for a big corporation like TEPCO, cost-cutting always starts at the bottom; the company is asking the Fuku I workers not to take more than one Tyvek suit.

According to one of the workers who tweet from Fukushima I Nuke Plant, TEPCO has already downgraded Tyvek suits quality. It used to be 1,440 yen per piece, now it's 840 yen, achieving 40% cost reduction.

The government, whether national or prefectural, shows no sign of helping TEPCO in any way when it comes to supporting and taking care of the workers at Fuku I. Instead, they want to waste taxpayers' money on inviting foreigners on free Japan trips (1 billion yen), inviting big social media writers (1.5 billion yen) to Tohoku, inviting IAEA "decontamination" mission who just recommended relaxing the standards (1 billion yen). Fukushima Prefecture is really raking in, over 100 billion yen for building a new cancer hospital at the medical university presided by Dr. Shunichi Yamashita.

Wasteful government spending continues no matter what happened, is happening, and will happen. That's how it goes, no matter where.

Must Read: Asahi Shinbun "Trap of Prometheus" Series Part 1 - Men in Protective Clothing (6) "It Could Have Been Us"

(Installment 1, Installments 2 and 3, Installments 4 and 5, Installment 6, Installments 7 and 8, Installments 9 and 10, Installments 11 and 12)

Asahi Shinbun's series "Trap of Prometheus" - Men in Protective Clothing, which documents what happened in Namie-machi in Fukushima Prefecture right after the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident.

If you read Japanese, you can read all installments (1-12) in one location, at this blog.

Even if the series is written by a reporter at a major Japanese newspaper, not many Japanese are aware of it, which, after the initial launch, was buried in the 3rd page of the printed version.



Men in Protective Clothing (6) Flies were swarming


Misako Yatsuda (age 62) was born and raised in Namie-machi. When she was in junior high school, TEPCO started to build Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant [1960s].


After graduating from high school, she went to Tokyo to work, but came back to Namie-machi after one and a half year. Since then, her life evolved around TEPCO.


She got married, opened a yakitori restaurant while raising 3 children. The customers were the workers at the plant.


Then she worked at the employee dormitories of TEPCO.


She worked there for 10 years until the summer of 2010. She cooked for them, and she was loved by the young TEPCO workers. In the women's dormitory there were female soccer players who went on to win the Women's World Cup Soccer. "There were all good people, very dear to me."


After her children grew up, she became a live-in employee at the dormitory for TEPCO managers.


She still remembers how hard TEPCO worked the elections.


Whenever there was a mayoral election or a prefectural assembly election, the dining hall of the dorm was turned into a staging area for the TEPCO management. When the candidate that TEPCO backed won, the management rushed to the candidate and celebrated. She was impressed. "An electric power company has such a strong connection with the politicians."


More than half her life, she has been involved with TEPCO. Nonetheless, there was no information from TEPCO on this nuclear accident.


Information is even more scarce in Kasugai City in Aichi Prefecture where she evacuated. She has the local Fukushima newspaper mailed to her, and reads every page.


How is she going to make a living? What about compensation? She is full of anxiety.


In June, she temporarily returned to her home in Namie-machi. The refrigerator was overturned by the earthquake. Flies were swarming on the rotten food stuff.


At the end of August, she went back to Fukushima again to get her car. Her husband drove, and it took them 8 hours on the highway from Kasugai City. She changed into a protective clothing in a school gym in Hirono-machi, and got on a bus arranged by [the government].


When the bus stopped [at the destination], two dogs with collars came to her. She saw two cats dead on the side of the road.


"It could have been us."


After the accident, her eldest daughter's family lives in Koriyama City. Her second daughter's family lives in Niigata Prefecture. Her family has been scattered.


In September, she applied for the temporary housing in Fukushima Prefecture.


"I have lived in Fukushima for decades. I want to go back." She cried. (reported by Motoyuki Maeda)